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  1. page space.menu edited ... Temperate Rainforest Biome Tropical Rainforest Biome Boreal Deciduous Forest Desert Temp…
    ...
    Temperate Rainforest Biome
    Tropical Rainforest Biome
    Boreal
    Deciduous Forest
    Desert
    Temperate Rainforest
    Tropical Rainforest

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  2. page Tropical Rainforest Biome edited Tropical Rainforest! Array {rainforest_map.gif} Tropical rainforest The tropical rainforest …

    Tropical Rainforest!
    Array {rainforest_map.gif}
    Tropical rainforest
    The tropical rainforest biome is a biome where it is wet and warm and it contains a variety of plants and other organisms. Almost all Tropical rainforess fall between the tropic of cancer and the tropic of capricorn. The longest tropical rainforest covers most of the Amazon region in Brazil. The change that led to the development of todays forests occured 130 million years ago. Durring the 1900's tropical rianforests were decreasing in size bye .8% each year wich is approximatly 59,000 square miles (slightly more than the area of florida) The combination of high tempatures and an abundance of water produces the high equateral rainfall. Equateral regions are the rainiest regions on earth. Althought you would think of a climate as the type of weather in the area, the tropical rainforest climate is distiguished by the amount of rainfall.(James D. Nations)
    {http://ridge.icu.ac.jp/gen-ed/biogeog-jpgs/tropical-rainforest.JPG}
    Temperature
    Since the tropical rainforests of the world are located on or near the equator, they are generally hot. In the tropical rainforest biome an average temperature of 77 degrees fahrenheit is sustained. Also, the temperature in a tropical rainforest will not reach below 64 degrees fahrenheit and will usually not raise any higher than about 94 degrees fahrenheit. The tropical rainforest biome is the biome that has the least amount of temperature change a year since most rainforests are so close to the equator and since the sun is basically always on the equator, there is not much temperature change.
    "Tropical Rainforest" 2001 blueplanetbiomes.org
    {http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~etaylor/413www/graph.gif}
    This graph shows a range of different tempertaures in all types of forests.It also shows how the temperature of a tropical rainforest differs from other forests.
    http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~etaylor/413www/graph.gif
    Climate
    To many people when the word tropical rainforest comes up the immediate thought of a warm area arises. Tropical rainforests have more of a wet and moist climate, for there is rain everyday, though it is still warm. However, not all rainforests contain warm temperatures all year round. It is only the rainforests that are near (approximately ten degrees) to the equator that has a consistently warm temperatures year round. Because of this, tropical rainforests have been divided into three groups: monsoon, equatorial and subtropical. Usually tropical rainforests have equatorial climates, for most of them are close to the equator. There are never any dry seasons in the tropical rainforest biome, for one rarely sees a day with no rain in the tropical rainforest.
    "Climates in TRF" 1999 library.thinkquest.org
    Plant Life
    The tropical rainforest biome contains some of the most vegetated areas in the entire world. The reason why there is so much vegetation is because of the daily rainfall, which helps to produce a wide variety of plant life. Some of the plant life that is grown in the tropical rainforest biome includes bamboo, banana plants, pineapples, coconuts and many many more. Because of the vast amount of trees, several different layers of forest have been made. The most well known of these several layers is most likely the canopy. The canopy contains trees that are colossal in size, ranging from heights of 60 feet to 150 feet. Since the canopy is so thick, a sort of "umbrella" is formed over the forest floor, which shades out the majority of the sunlight. Even with the lack of sunlight due to the canopy, the tropical rainforest biome is able to crow immense amount of plant life due to its massive amount of rainfall per year.
    "Rainforest Plantlife" savetherainforest,org
    {http://www.kidcyber.com.au/IMAGES/Rafflesialabel.jpg} {http://library.thinkquest.org/TQ0310225/graphics/redplant.gif} {http://www.veeriku.tartu.ee/~ppensa/saint-orchid.jpg}
    Animal Species:
    In the biome of a tropical rainforest, there is a great diversity of animal species in the groups of reptiles, mammals, invertebrates,and birds. Some of them are most commonly known as jaguars, toucans, parrots, gorillas, and tarantulas. Although there are many different animals in the rainforest, they all share one thing in common, their biome. All these animals must be able to adapt to living in the tropical rainforest biome, or else they would have to move. They all survive in the rainforest in a climate of approximately 75 to 80 degrees F all year round. These animal species almost always have easy access to water because rain falls almost everyday in the rainforest. Most scientists think that there is such a wide variety of animals in the tropical rainforest because rainforests are the oldest ecosystem (biome) on earth. One animal commonly known to the rainforest is called a Toco Toucan. It is the largest of all toucans and adapts in a tropical rainforest along with all the other animals in its biome. It likes to live in open areas somewhere around South America. The Toco Toucan mates with others depending on where they live, and breed about once a year.
    {http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/images/toco_toucan.jpg}
    http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/rnfrst_animal_page.htm
    http://www.tooter4kids.com/Rainforest/animals.html
    The Orangutan:
    The Orangutan, name meaning "man of the forest" in Malay, is another commonly known animal to live in the tropical rainforst biome. These animals live in the tree tops of the Southeast Asian tropical rainforest. This species is the largest animal to live in the trees in Southeast Asia. Orangutans can grow up to be five feet tall and 220 pounds as a male and 110 pounds as a female. When orangutans are fully grown, they have an arm span of approximately eight feet. The build of an orangutan consits of a very strong upper body and a weak lower body, including very short, weak legs. As known, orangutans usually have reddish brown hair and a high sloping forehead. This species has feet shaped like our hands, so therefore orangutans have four hands. While walking, the orangutan walks on all fours with their knees bent inwards. The sound that this animal makes that sounds like a squeaking sound is a call to others. The orangutan eats during the day and sleeps at night in branches about 40 to 50 feet above the ground. Orangutans start to mate at the age of eight to ten and mate all year round.
    {http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/images/orangutan_infant.jpg} {http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/images/orangutan.jpg}
    Energy Flow:
    The energy flow in a tropical rainforest with sunlight and water is very different from any other biome. Because the tropical rainforest recieves so much sunlight and rainfall, plants grow to be bigger, taller, and stronger than plants in any other biome. Plants becomming very large prevent most sunlight from reaching the bottom layer of the rainforest. As shown in the diagram below, 100% of the rainfall reaches the rainforest. 50% of that rainfall is consumed, 25% of it evaporates, and the other 25% of it is surface runoff. This rainfall cycle known as the water cycle continues everyday and produced rainfall and water to the plants and animals of the tropical rainforest biome.
    {http://www.digitalfrog.com/resources/archives/watercycle.jpg} http://www.digitalfrog.com/resources/archives/watercycle.jpg
    Precipitation
    A average tropical rainforest recieves more than 150cm of rain a year. This is almost 1/8 of an inch per day. Although the rainforest recieves large amounts of rain, not all of it makes it to the forest floor. In fact, less than 30% of the rain fall reaches the forest ground. The tropical rain forest loses 25% of incoming rainwater by evaporation, 25% of rain falls onto the leaves and 40% of it runs down the barks of tree trunks. Seasons in a tropical rainforest are not depicted by the type of weather but by the amount of rainfall. In the chart shown below, March is the most rainiest month for part of the Amazon in Manaus Brazil with about 325 mm of rainfall. (James D,Nations, 17 20 21 61)
    {rainfall_graph.gif}
    Sunlight
    This climate is found near the equator. That means that there is more direct sunlight hitting the land and sea there than anywhere else. Sun rays beat down on the rainforests from almost directly overheas. In the tropics the high angle of the sun generates more warmth and solar energy than in temperate zones. The canopy (top layer of trees) obsormes almsot 98% of the sunlight that stikes the rainforest. The Shrub level is located at the ground where it is damp and dark with little sunlight. As you get closer to the ground, the amount of sunlight decreases as shown in the picture below.(James D. Nations, 16,17,21,29)(Michael Allaby104-105)
    {tropical.gif}
    Bibliography
    1st Youtube Video- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cMojw8InWKQ
    Distribution of trpical rainforest map- http://www.greenwichschools.org/uploaded/faculty/nelyda_miguel/rainforestmap.gif
    Sunlight distribution picture- http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/images/g_me_r_2.gif
    Miscellanious- http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/rainforest.htm
    Climate-http://www.studygs.net/citation/mla.htm
    Plantlife-http://www.savetherainforest.org/savetherainforest_004.htm
    Temperature-http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/rainforest.htm
    Pictures-http://www.kidcyber.com.au/IMAGES/Rafflesialabel.jpg
    http://library.thinkquest.org/TQ0310225/graphics/redplant.gif
    http://www.veeriku.tartu.ee/~ppensa/saint-orchid.jpg
    http://www.savetherainforest.org/savetherainforest_004.htm
    http://www.abcteach.com/RainforestFacts/plants.htm
    Books-
    Tropical Rainforests- endangered enviroment
    Publisher- Franklin Watts
    City of Publication- United States,1988
    Author- James D. Nations
    Tropical Rainforests- Biomes of the earth
    Publisher- Chelsea Clubhouse
    Year Published-2006
    Authour- Michael Allaby
    TRIVIA!
    1.) All tropical rainforests fall between...
    A.-Africa and Asia.
    B- The Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn
    C.- The Tropic of Cancer and Africa.
    2.)Since all tropical rainforests are located near the equator, they...
    A.- are generall hot
    B.- have more rainfall
    c.- both
    3.)In the tropical rainforest, there is rain..
    A.-About everyday
    B- About every other day
    C.- About once a week
    4.)The reason why there is so much vegetation in the tropical rainforest is because..
    A.- It rains so much
    B.- It is the oldest biome
    C.- Because it is located near the equator.
    5.)In a tropical rainforest, animals have easy access to..
    A.- Food
    B.-Water
    C.-Sunlight
    6.)In malay, orangutan means..
    A.- King of the Forest
    B.- King of the Jungle
    C.-Man of the Forest
    7.)The tropical rainforest looses 25% of water by..
    A.-Plants and animals consuming it.
    B- It evaporates into the air
    C.-It runs into lakes, rivers, streams.
    8.)In a tropical rainforest, the top layer of trees is called..
    A.- Schrubs
    B.-the Canopy
    C.-The sun level

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  3. page Tropical Rainforest edited ==Tropical Tropical Rainforest! {rainforest_map.gif} Alex Cercone, Kelsey Aiello, and Bobby…

    ==TropicalTropical Rainforest!
    {rainforest_map.gif}
    Alex Cercone, Kelsey Aiello, and Bobby DiPronio are working on this page.
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    7:31 am
  4. page Temperate Rainforest Biome edited Temperate Rainforest Introduction Approximately 87% of the original North American Temperate …

    Temperate Rainforest
    Introduction
    Approximately 87% of the original North American Temperate Rainforests have been destroyed(Cavendish). A report in 1992 estimated a total of 80-100 million acres of coastal Temperate Rainforests, less than half of that exists today. To try and stop this Ecotrust and Conservation International support studies of coastal Temperate Rainforests (Gay).
    {http://www.vicrainforest.org/images/tyres3.jpg}
    A small creek runs smoothly over large rocks over grown with moss, somewhere in the Temperate Rainforests.
    Location
    Temperate Rainforests stretch across from the beginning of Europe to the end of Asia and is partly in Russia. It also covers parts of the west coast and partially the midwest.(Cavendish)
    {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/archive/5/59/20070523012143!Temperate_rainforest_map.png}
    Climate
    The Word Temperate itself means “of mild temperature”. This region’s title very much describes its climate. The temperatures in the Temperate Rainforest rarely drop below freezing during the winter, and irregularly exceed 80° during the summer months. Most forests receive 50-60 inches of rainfall a year, but some forest may receive more.
    Plant life
    There are certain trees that can only be found in a Temperate Rainforest. Some of these are the Sitka Spruce, and the Western Hemlock. The Sitka Spruce is the world’s largest spruce, with tall, a straight trunk, and horizontal branches. They can reach up 160 feet tall, and up-
    wards of 5 feet in diameter.
    The Western Hemlock is also
    the tallest in its family.
    These trees can reach any-
    where from 100 to 150 ft.,
    and only grow to be 3 or 4
    feet wide.
    http://www.bbc.co.uk/devon/content/images/2007/08/23/sitka_spruce_465x309.jpg
    {http://www.bbc.co.uk/devon/content/images/2007/08/23/sitka_spruce_465x309.jpg}
    Animals Of The Temperate Rainforest
    The temperate rainforest has a large amount of resources, which enables a wide variety of animals to make this biome their home. The primary consumers include common animals such as squirrels, chipmunks, moles, and many other small rodents. Other primary consumers include birds, deer, elk, and fish. Like many other biomes, there is also a large amount of insects and small reptiles/amphibians; these include snakes, frogs, and mosquitoes. These consumers mainly eat the contents of the understory layer of this biome, which consists of things such as berries, seeds, grass, mushrooms, and shrubs.
    The secondary consumers also find most of their food within the understory. A few examples of the temperate rainforest’s secondary consumers are shrews, birds, weasels, raccoons and owls. Larger more dangerous consumers include wolves, bears, foxes, and cougars.
    (Viau)
    {http://curriculum.calstatela.edu/courses/builders/lessons/less/biomes/rainforest/temp_rain/tempgifs/tempweb.gif}
    http://curriculum.calstatela.edu/courses/builders/lessons/less/biomes/rainforest/temp_rain/tempgifs/tempweb.gif
    {http://www.chs.k12.nf.ca/science/b3201/WebCT-Copy/images/lesson-images/lesson02/precip.gif}
    Precipitation
    Rainfall: high rainfall (minimum 2-3 m/year, depending on latitude), usually from moisture-laden winds off the ocean. Relative proximity to the ocean: temperate rain forests depend on the proximity to the ocean to moderate seasonal variations in temperature, creating milder winters and cooler summers than continental-climate areas. Many temperate rain forests have summer fogs that keep the forests cool and moist in the hottest months. Coastal mountains: temperate rain forests occur where mountain ranges are close to the coast; coastal mountains increase rainfall on the ocean-facing slopes. The average annual rainfall in the Temperate Rainforests of the Pacific Northwest is 145 in.(Cavendish). Temperate Rainforests around the world average from 60-200 inches of rainfall per year. During the winter temperature drops in the northernmost regions, and snow and ice may occur.http://curriculum.calstatela.edu/courses/builders/lessons/less/biomes/rainforest/temp_rain/temprain.html
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m8RooyrfRO4
    Works Cited
    http://www.bbc.co.uk/devon/content/images/2007/08/23/sitka_spruce_465x309.jpg date unknown
    http://curriculum.calstatela.edu/courses/builders/lessons/less/biomes/rainforest/temp_rain/tempgifs/tempweb.gif date unkown
    http://curriculum.calstatela.edu/courses/builders/lessons/less/biomes/rainforest/temp_rain/temprain.html date unknown
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m8RooyrfRO4 date unknown

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    7:29 am
  5. page Desert Biome edited Desert Biome {http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/images/desert_location_map001.gif} The different …

    Desert Biome
    {http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/images/desert_location_map001.gif} The different desert biomes around the world
    Background Information
    Deserts make up one-fifth of the worlds land. They are usually located along the Tropic of Cancer or the Tropic of Capricorn. (The Desert Biome) . The deserts located near the mountains are formed by the "rain shadow" effect. The "rain shadow" effect is a process of how air moves up a mountain which makes it cold and lose its ability to hold any moisture, but when the air gets through and down the other side of the mountain the air becomes warmer and has the ability to hold moisture again. The more moisture the air can absorb, the less precipitation that area will have, which later forms a desert. (:::: What's It Like Where You Live? :::: ). Also, there two different types of deserts, hot deserts or cold deserts (look at the graph below to see the description of the hot and cold deserts). The fact that deserts typically have little to no vegetation causes them to have extreme temperatures. They are made up of sand, rocks, and gravel and receive very little rainfall each year. (The Desert Biome)
    {http://staffwww.fullcoll.edu/tmorris/elements_of_ecology/images/rain_shadow.jpg} Rain Shadow Effect
    (Chapter 3)
    {desert_dunes.jpg} Dunes of the Namib Desert(Dunes)
    Climate
    In the desert, the temperature varies greatly from day to night. During the day, temperatures rise to over 100 degrees Fahrenheit, and it drops below freezing at night. The temperatures are so extreme because of the lack of vegetation and there are only about 10 or 20 percent of humidity to trap the climate. Sometimes it gets so hot in the daytime that it can cause mirages, or hallucinations.
    One type of storm that is found in the desert is the whirlwind. Whirlwinds can come unexpectedly from the ground at any time of the year. A whirlwind forms when the hot air and the cold air collide and start to spin very quickly. Although whirlwinds do not typically last very long, they can be extremely devastating to anything in their path. Dust devils are basically just miniature whirlwinds. They don't do nearly as much damage, but you still wouldn't want to be hit by one. Sandstorms are also quite common in the desert, and can be deadly if you get caught out in one. The flying sand can strip away skin if it is moving fast enough. A sandstorm can be started by a mere 12mph wind.
    (Allaby, 76-77)
    {http://www.msu.edu/course/isb/202/ebertmay/images/desert_graph.jpg}
    (ISB 202: Ecosystems: Energy Flow and Trophic Structure)
    Precipitation
    Deserts receive less than 25cm of rain each year. (Lisowski, Marylin and Jones Linda C, 64). From December to March, deserts receive the most rain of the year, and each of those months can receive up to 1.3cm of rain. Also, in hot deserts the main precipitation is only rain (about 10 or less inches per year), but in cold deserts they receive either fog or snow. Some parts of deserts don't receive any rain at all in a year. The humidity is extreme in these areas almost impossible to live in.
    (Desert Plants)
    {http://www.marietta.edu/%7Ebiol/biomes/images/woodland/whittaker_v2.jpg}
    (Marietta College Main Biomes Page )
    Sunlight
    The sunlight is the ultimate form of life for all the plants in the desert. The sun is the only reason there are actually plants in the desert because once the plants obtain little water from little rain fall sunlight helps them to bloom or grow. But the ultra violent rays from the sun make it very hard for animals to live there that's why there aren't many animals in the desert. The sun shines in the desert for half the day to more than half the day. So in the summer where it doesn't get dark fast the sun is out even longer making the desert impossible to travel on in some places because it never cools down. During the afternoon the suns raise can heat the desert well over 100 degrees. For some animals this can be fatal without shade, but most burrow underground or hide under trees until night. During the day the power of the sun makes it very hard to find animal in the middle of the day because not many animals can last in that extreme heat. (Desert). The sunlight is the ultimate life form in the desert because without it nothing could grow or make food.
    (World Builders: Desert Biomes E Viau CSULA )
    Animal species
    Despite the deserts uninviting appearance, many different species of animals actually survive there. The reason that the animals that dwell there don't die is that they have adaptations that have evolved over time to desert life. For example, camels have developed the ability to store large amounts of water for long periods of time. The hump on a camel's back doesn't actually contain water, but a sort of blubbery fat that has a lot of water in it. Camels also have transparent eyelids, which enables them to see without getting sand in their eyes. There are many other types of animals that live in the desert as well. These include coyotes, as well as a variety of species of lizards and rodents. (Camel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.)
    {http://fohn.net/camel-pictures-facts/the-pictures/Arabian-Camel-800x600.jpg}
    (Camel Pictures and Facts)
    Animal
    The fennec fox is the smallest fox in the world and are found in northern Africa. Their life span is only 7 to 10 years. Its body is approximately 37 to 41 centimeters and its tail is around 19 to 21 centimeters and only weigh about 3 pounds. Their scientific name is vulpes zerda and what makes these foxes different from other foxes around the world is its enormous ears. They use their ears for tracking their prays and it acts as a radiator by helping it lose excess heat. Also, their darks eyes provides them dark vision when hunting for food. In the daytime they stay inside their burrows, which are usually located on small hills where moisture is retained the longest. They are carnivores and their diet includes birds, small rodents, insects, and lizards. The fennec fox mostly get its water from their food too. (Fennec Fox ) Another interesting adaptation that the fennec fox has is that the entire surface area of its feet is covered in fur. This is so that when walking around on the hot desert sand, they will not burn their feet. Fennec foxes generally live in small communities containing around ten fennec foxes. As with most canines, male fennec foxes mark their territory with urine, and will also become quite aggressive during mating season. Fennec foxes will eat many things. The harsh conditions of the desert have made them willing to eat most anything edible that they can find in the desert. Their normal diet consists of plants, rodents, eggs, reptiles, and insects. (Fennec Fox, Fennec Fox Profile, Facts, Information, Photos, Pictures, Sounds, Habitats, Reports, News - National Geographic.)
    {http://www.dkimages.com/discover/previews/867/15004628.JPG}
    (Dkimages - discover - animals - Fennec Fox (Vulpes zerda) )
    {http://www.vtaide.com/png/foodweb/desert-sm.jpg}
    (Desert Biomes )
    The caracal, also called desert lynx is a desert cat that is slightly larger than a puma. The caracal normally hunts at twighlight, but the temperature can affect its hunting pattern. If it is really cold out, such as in the winter, the caracal will hunt only in the daytime. Also, if it is extremely hot out, like in the summer, it will hunt only at night. (Allaby, 118). The caracal generally hunts in dry, open country, such as the desert, and will hunt prey up to the size of a small deer. The caracal is the largest member of Africa's small cats family. (Allaby, 102). Male caracal can weigh up to 40 pounds. They are between 16-20 inches tall and 35-39 inches long. The black tufts on the top of the ears tend to be about 1.75 inches long. (Caracal ) An interesting fact about caracals is that they do not like sandy deserts at all, so they are found in slightly more rocky terrain. Caracals usually use rock crevices as their living area and mating cave. A caracal's gestation period lasts for approximately 69-78 days, and will typically give birth to 1-6 cubs. The cubs are then nursed for 10-25 weeks. Like the fennec fox, the caracal also marks its territory with urine. Caracals are strictly carnivorous, and they stalk their prey before pouncing upon it. The existence of the caracal both benefits and deters the human race. One good thing for humans about these cats is that they can be easily tamed, and some people even use them for hunting. One bad thing, however is that caracals are extremely good jumpers, so they tend to be able to jump into farmers' livestock and kill them. (ADW: .)
    {caracal.jpg}
    (Fauna Species )
    Plants
    Even though there is little to no precipitation in the desert plant life is still found. The saguaro cactus is one that grows in the desert. It stores the water in the limb at the time it rains and that water can last up to 5 months. Also, the barrel cactus, brittle bush, chainfruit cholla, cresote bush, desert ironwood, etc. grow. But, due to the low precipitation little plant life is able to grow so there aren't many flowers or beautiful plants. The little plant life also makes it very hard for plant eaters to find food very hard for plant eaters to find food.
    (Desert Plants )
    {barrel_cactus.jpg} Barrel Cactus
    (Types of Cactus)
    Energy Flow
    {http://curriculum.calstatela.edu/courses/builders/lessons/less/biomes/desert/hot-desert/desert_chain.gif}
    (World Builders: Hot Desert Food Chain E Viau CSULA )
    {http://curriculum.calstatela.edu/courses/builders/lessons/less/biomes/desert/hot-desert/hot_desert_py.gif} Food Pyarmid
    (World Builders: A Food Pyramid in the Hot Desert Biome )
    The major Hot Deserts of the World
    Name
    Location
    Size
    Physical
    Features
    Some Plants & Animals
    Special Facts
    Arabian
    Arabian Peninsula
    900,000 mi2
    2,300,000 km2
    Covered almost entirely by sand; has some of the most extensive stretches of sand dunes in the world.
    acacia, oleander, saltbush
    desert locust, dromedary camel, gazelle, lizard, jackal, oryx
    Nomadic Bedouin tribes have travelled through the Arabian Desert for thousands of years.
    Australian (Great Sandy, Victoria, Simpson, Gibson, and Sturt)
    Australia
    890,00 mi2
    2,300,000 km2
    (1/3 of Australia)
    Great Sandy, Victoria, and Simpson are sandy; Gibson and Sturt are stony.
    acacia, casuarina tree, eucalyptus, saltbush, spinifex grass
    blue-tongued lizard, dingo, fat-tailed mouse, kangaroo, marsupial mole, rabbit-eared bandicoot, sand goanna, spinifex hopping mouse, throny devil
    Aborigines have lived in the Australian deserts for over 30,000 years.
    Chihuahuan
    North Central Mexico and Southwestern United States (Arizona, New Mexico, Texas)
    175,000 mi2
    455,000 km2
    High plateau covered by stony areas and sandy soil. Many mountains and mesas.
    cacti, chihuahuan flax, creosote bush, lechuguilla, mesquite, mexican gold poppy
    coyote, diamondback rattlesnake, javelina, kangaroo rat, roadrunner
    Largest North American desert. Big Bend National Park located here; more species of birds seen in Big Bend than in any other National Park in the U.S.
    Kalahari
    Southwestern Africa
    200,000 mi2
    520,000 km2
    Covered by sand dunes and gravel plains.
    acacia, aloe
    gazelle, gerbil, ground squirrel, hyena, jackel, sandgrouse, springbok
    Bushman have lived in the Kalahari for 20,000 years.
    Mojave
    Southwestern United States (Arizona, California, Nevada)
    25,000 mi2
    65,000 km2
    Covered by sandy soil, gravelly pavement, and salt flats.
    creosote bush, desert sand verbena, joshua tree, mesquite
    bighorn sheep, chuckwalla, coyote, jackrabbit, sidewinder, zebra-tailed lizard
    Death Valley located in this desert.
    Monte
    Argentina
    125,000 mi2
    325,000 km2
    Covered by sand and soil
    cardon cactus, creosote bush, paloverde
    armadillo, cavy, jaguarundi, puma, tinamou, tuco-tuco
    Very similar to the Sonoran Desert
    Sahara
    Northern Africa
    3,500,000 mi2
    9,100,000 km2
    Covered by mountains, rocky areas, gravel plains, salt flats, huge areas of dunes. Areas in the central sometimes get no rain for years at a time.
    acacia, grasses, tamarisks
    addax antelope, dorcas gazelle, fennec fox, horned viper, jackal, jerboa, sandgrouse, spiny-yailed lizard
    Largest desert in the world. Fewer than 2 million inhabitants (mostly nomads such as the Tuareg). Crossed by Arab caravans since the 10th century.
    Sonoran
    Southwestern United States (Arizona, California) and parts of Mexico (Baja Peninsula, Sonora)
    120,000 mi2
    312,000 km2
    Covered by sand, soil, and gravelly pavement. Gets more rain than any other North American desert.
    agave, coulter's globemallow, creosote bush, desert mariposa lily, mesquite, ocotillo, paloverde, saguaro
    coati, elf owl, gila monster, kangaroo rat, pack rat, roadrunner, sidewinder, tarantula
    Most complex animal-plant community of any desert.
    One of the most beautiful deserts in the world.
    Thar
    India and Pakistan
    77,000 mi2
    200,000 km2
    Majority of desert covered by sand dunes; rest covered by gravel plains
    acacia, euphorbias, grasses, shrubs
    black buck, dromedary camel, great Indian bustard, Indian spiny-tailed lizard, jackel, sandgrouse
    Small villages of ten to twenty houses scattered throughout the Thar.
    (:::: What's It Like Where You Live? :::: )
    The major Cold Deserts of the World
    Name
    Location
    Size
    Physical
    Features
    Some Plants & Animals
    Special Facts
    Atacama
    Coasts of Peru and Chile
    54,000 mi2
    140,000 km2
    Covered by sand dunes and pebbles. One of the driest areas on earth.
    bunchgrass, cardon cactus, tamaruga trees
    lizards, llama, Peruvian fox, nesting area for many seabirds
    Only a few thousand people (mostly farmers) live in the inland desert areas.
    Large deposits of sodium nitrate are found in the desert. Sodium nitrate is used to make gunpowder.
    Gobi
    Northern China and Southern Mongolia
    450,000 mi2
    1,200,000 km2
    Covered by sandy soil and areas of small stones called "gobi."
    camel's thorn, grasses
    bactrian bamel, gazelle, gerbil, jerboa, lizards, onager, wolf
    Crossed by Genghis Khan in the early 13th century. Many nomads now settling on government-run farms.
    Great Basin
    Western United States (Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, and Utah)
    158,000 mi2
    411,000 km2
    Covered by sand, gravel, and clay.
    Many moutains ranges, basins, and large expanses of salt flats.
    greasewood, sagebrush, shadscale
    bighorn sheep, jackrabbit, pocket mouse, poor-will, pronghorn antelope, sage thrasher, side-blotched lizard
    Great Salt Lake located here.
    Iranian
    Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan
    150,000 mi2
    390,000 km2
    Covered by coarse gray soil, stony pavement, and salt flats.
    grasses, pistachio trees, shrubs
    monitor lizard, onager, oryx, scorpion
    World's largest salt flat located here.
    Namib
    Coasts of Southwestern Africa
    52,000 mi2
    135,000 km2
    Covered by sand dunes along the coast and gravel farther inland.
    aloe, bunchgrass, lichens, welwitschia
    darkling beetle, fringe-toed lizard, golden mole, jackal, sidewinder, viper, web-footed gecko
    Coast of the Namib Desert is world's greatest source of gemstones.
    Takla Makan
    Western China
    600,000 mi2
    1,600,000km2
    Covered by sand dunes and rocky soil.
    grasses, shrubs
    bactrian camel, jerboa, long-eared hedgehog, gazelle
    The word "Takla Makan" means "place from which there is no return."
    Crossed by Marco Polo in the 13th Century.
    Turkestan
    Parts of the Middle East and Southwestern Russia
    215,000 mi2
    559,000 km2
    Covered mostly by extensive stretches of sand dunes.
    alhagi shrub, saxaul tree, sedges, thick ground cover
    desert tortoise, gazelle, gerbil, saiga antelope
    Crossed by caravans following silk route from China in Europe in ancient times.
    The great city of Samarkand, once a cultural and religious center of central Asia, was located here.
    (:::: What's It Like Where You Live? :::: )
    (BBC Discovery Channel Planet Earth: Desert 5)
    Click here the see our bibliography page!

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  6. page Deciduous Biome edited Deciduous Forest Basic Info The deciduous forest is alive with sound and color from the many o…

    Deciduous Forest
    Basic Info
    The deciduous forest is alive with sound and color from the many organisms whose habitats are in these forests.
    (Fink, Martin Patricia, pg 1-207)
    Plants
    The deciduous forest is mostly made up of deciduous trees. These are trees that lose their leaves at a certain time each year and then later grow new leaves to replace them. Deciduous trees lose their leaves in autumn. However, before the leaves die, the food material that they contain is drawn back into twigs and branches and is stored there to be used in the spring. Losing its leaves helps the tree conserve water in the winter. Some examples of deciduous trees are ash, beech, birch, maple, oak, hickories, aspens, and larch trees. The trees are extremely vital for the deciduous habitat. They protect the soil, keep the water clean, and provide habitats and food for other organisms. The amount of trees in a forest can also alter the temperature, humidity, and wind speed of that certain habitat.
    ("MBGnet.")
    Layers of the Deciduous Forest
    The Deciduous forest is made up of 5 layers: the canopy, the understory,the shrubs layer, the herb layer, and the ground layer. The canopy is the highest layer of trees. Because of the hard conditions in this layer, not many animals live in the canopy of the woods. The understory is made up of the smaller trees. In this layer there are insects, birds such as vireos, warblers, and flycatchers, squirrels, porcupines, flying squirrels, and songbirds. There are many animals in this layer of the forest because they are protected by the canopy from storms and flying predators, but at the same time they are high enough to avoid predators on the forest floor. Next is the shrub layer which is the home of birds, insects, small animals, deer mice, chipmunks, and shrews. Under the shrubs is the herb layer of the forest. This area includes ferns, grasses, lichens, and wildflowers. This is also the habitat of snakes, mice, turtles, birds, and insects searching for nectar in the flowers. Lastly, there is the ground layer which consists of mosses, lichens, and liverworts.
    (Fink, Martin Patricia, pg 1-207)
    Animals
    Black Bear
    Class: Mammaila
    Order: Carnivora
    Family: Ursidae
    Scientific Name: Ursus americanus
    The Black Bear is one of the many animals that calls the deciduous forest its home. In the United States, these bears can be found from New England to Louisiana and in the mountainous western U.S. THeir diet consists of mail fruits, insects, fish, and small mammals but they also eat nuts roots and honey. Although they are called the Black Bear, they can actually vary in color from reddish brown and glossy black to almost completely white. Black Bears are nocturnal and roam the forest at night in search of food. In the fall, Black Bears fatten themselves to prepare for hibernation. Their sleep lasts throughout the cold weather of deciduous winter.
    {http://tbn0.google.com/images?q=tbn:3f32a0nY8uSRqM:http://www.naturetrek.co.uk/pics/mp_black_bear.jpg} Black Bear
    (www.naturetrek.co.uk)
    Cardinal
    Class: Aves
    Order: Passeriformes
    Family: Cardinalinae
    Scientific Name: Cardinalis cardinalis
    The Cardinal is one of the many bird species that inhabit the deciduous forest. They are found in New England, the Great Lakes, and from Arizona to the Gulf Coast. Although the Cardinal is known for its brilliant red feathers, it is actually only the males that have this bright red color. The female Cardinals are brown with red beaks and a slight red tinge on their wings. These birds are very territorial and eat mainly seeds. However, during the breeding season they are also known to eat insects.
    {http://tbn0.google.com/images?q=tbn:OMOOdH90av-iPM:http://www.growingwisdom.com/UserFiles/Image/Birds%2520and%2520Beneficials/cardinal.jpg} Cardinal
    (www.growingwisdom.com)
    Habitat in a Dead Log
    Wood Eaters
    Bark beetles
    Larvae of clinch beetles and wood borers
    Long horned beetles
    Engraver beetles
    Bessbugs
    Carpenter ants
    Termites
    Scavengers
    Mites
    Millipedes
    Pill Bugs
    Wood Roaches
    Snails
    Slugs
    Earthworms
    Predators
    Spiders
    Salamanders
    Centipedes
    (Allaby, Michael, pg 1-490)
    Food Web
    {deciduous-food_web.jpg}
    ("Virtual Teacher Aide.")
    {http://www.sky-hunters.org/EL_MSLS_FoodChain1.gif}
    ("Sky Hunters Environmental Education." )
    Climate
    The Climate in the Deciduous Forest is greatly affected by the tilt of the earth's axis. As our planet revolves around the sun, it's axis stays tilted, causing the four seasons of the deciduous forest. During the spring and summer months, the deciduous forest ranges in temperatures from cool to warm. In the fall and winter, the forests will get very cold. These changes of the season not only affect the temperature in the forest but also alter the form of precipitation it receives.
    ("MBGnet.")
    Temperature
    Temperatures throughout year
    {http://www.chs.k12.nf.ca/science/b3201/WebCT-Copy/images/lesson-images/lesson02/temperature.gif}
    ("MBGnet.")
    The Purple line on the graph above shows the changes in temerature in the deciduous forest throughout the year. The average temperature of the deciduous forest is about 50 degrees Fahrenheit. The temperate forest has four changing seasons, and as the seasons change, so do the colors of the leaves of the deciduous trees. The four seasons happen because of the tilt of the Earth on its axis. During each season, the sun's rays hit the earth either more or less directly.
    ("MBGnet.")
    Precipitation
    Precipitation throughout year
    {http://www.mbgnet.net/sets/temp/rainfall.gif}
    The purple bar on the graph above shows the average inches of rainfall per year in the deciduous forest. On average, the deciduous forest receives around 60 inches of raifall per year. Next to the rainforest, the deciduous forest gets the second-most amount of rainfall per year.
    ("MBGnet.")
    Sunlight
    Sunlight is what causes deciduous trees to shed their leaves in the fall and winter. When the air is warm, the broad leaves are able to absorb plenty of sunlight. However, when the temperatures drop, the broad leaves expose the trees to water loss. To prevent loss of water, trees shed their leaves in the colder months and store the sugars produced by the leaves in the branches.
    ("Earth Floor")
    {http://www.rspca-pix.com/image/Sunlight-in-Woodland_493997.jpg}
    ("Sunlight in Woodland (From RSPCA)." )
    Cycles
    Carbon and nitrogen are recycled in a forest very efficiantly. Forest plants and soil microbes exract these elements from the soil and air and use them to make molecules for growth.
    {http://www.h2ou.com/h2images/NitrogenCycle-lgr-F.jpg}
    ("Virtual Teacher Aide.")
    {http://www.usgcrp.gov/usgcrp/images/ocp2003/WaterCycle-optimized.jpg}
    (Figure 5.1. Conceptualization of the Water Cycle (Schematic view)." )
    {http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect16/carbon_cycle_diagram.jpg}
    (CARBOnergy)
    Photos
    {http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/images/deciduous/deciduous_500.jpg} Major Deciduous Forests
    ("Virtual Teacher Aide." )
    {http://sciencecastle.com/sc/app/webroot/img/articles/121.jpg} Deciduous Autumn
    ("Virtual Teacher Aide." )
    Videos
    Deciduous Forest
    ("YouTube.")
    Planet Earth: Seasonal Forests Trailer
    ("YouTube.")
    Bibliography
    http://biomee.wikispaces.com/deciduous+forest+bibliogrphy <- click here to see our bibliography
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